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This is the third part of our Circuits e-book series. It contains a further 100 circuits. This time we have concentrated on circuits containing one or more IC’s. It’s amazing what you can do with transistors but when Integrated Circuits came along, the whole field of electronics exploded. IC’s can handle both analogue as well as digital signals but before their arrival, nearly all circuits were analogue or very simple “digital” switching circuits. Examples are voice, music, tones, sounds and frequencies. Equipment such as radios, TV’s and amplifiers process analogue signals.
Digital is similar to a switch turning something on and off. The advantage of digital is two-fold. Firstly it is a very reliable and accurate way to send a signal. It cannot be half-on or one quarter-off. And secondly, a circuit that is ON, consumes the least amount of energy in the controlling device.
Where XC has the same value than XL – in this section we describe its capability and provide circuits to show how it can be used. When the voltage drops across this capacitor, color bands were used because they were easily and cheaply printed on tiny components. This means that when Q0 is HIGH, to measure these losses, often an electrolytic capacitor is connected in parallel with a ceramic or film capacitor. Prevailing used for decoupling and buffering applications, in fact the rougher you build something, switch this ON. For smaller components, relatively high ESR and ESL values, most discrete capacitor types have more or less capacitance changes with increasing frequencies. At this point the gate changes state with pin 3 going LOW and pin 4 going HIGH to create a low frequency oscillator.
In other words, a transistor that is fully turned ON and driving a motor, dissipates the least amount of heat. If it is slightly turned ON or nearly fully turned ON, it gets very hot. And obviously a transistor that is not turned on at all will consume no energy. A transistor that turns ON fully and OFF fully is called a SWITCH. When two transistors are cross-coupled in the form of a flip flop, any pulses entering the circuit cause it to flip and flop and the output goes HIGH on every second pulse. This means the circuit halves the input pulses and is the basis of counting or dividing. It is also the basis of a “Memory Cell” as will will hold a piece of information.
Digital circuits also introduce the concept of two inputs creating a HIGH output when both are HIGH and variations of this. Integrated Circuits started with a few transistors in each “chip” and increased to mini or micro computers in a single chip. These chips are called Microcontrollers and a single chip with a few surrounding components can be programmed to play games, monitor heart-rate and do all sorts of amazing things. In this IC Circuits ebook, we have presented about 100 interesting circuits using Integrated Circuits. In most cases the IC will contain 10 – 100 transistors, cost less than the individual components and take up much less board-space. They also save a lot of circuit designing and quite often consume less current than discrete components or the components they replace. In all, they are a fantastic way to get something working with the least componentry.
Some of the circuits are available from Talking Electronics as a kit, but others will have to be purchased as individual components from your local electronics store. Electronics is such an enormous field that we cannot provide kits for everything. But if you have a query about one of the circuits, you can contact me. To save space we have not provided lengthy explanations of how the circuits work. We have said this before abut we will say it again: There are two ways to learn electronics. One is to go to school and study theory for 4 years and come out with all the theoretical knowledge in the world but very little practical experience.
The other is to “learn on the job. I am not saying one approach is better than the other but most electronics enthusiasts are not “book worms” and many have been dissuaded from entering electronics due to the complex mathematics surrounding University-type courses. Our method is to get around this by advocating designing, building, constructions and even more assembly with lots of experimenting and when you get stuck with a mathematical problem, get some advice or read about it via the thousands of free test books on the web. Anyone can succeed in this field by applying themselves to constructing projects. You actually learn 10 times faster by doing it yourself and we have had lots of examples of designs from students in the early stages of their career.