Din 1045 3 pdf

DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung e. Din 1045 3 pdf dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. The date of the founding of the Khwarazmian dynasty remains debatable.

During a revolt in 1017, Khwarezmian rebels murdered Abu’l-Abbas Ma’mun and his wife, Hurra-ji, sister of the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud. Sultan Ahmed Sanjar died in 1156. As the Seljuk state fell into chaos, the Khwarezm-Shahs expanded their territories southward. In 1194, the last Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire, Toghrul III, was defeated and killed by the Khwarezm ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish, who conquered parts of Khorasan and western Iran.

Ala ad-Din Muhammad’s alliance with his suzerain was short-lived. In 1218, Genghis Khan sent a trade mission to the state, but at the town of Otrar the governor, suspecting the Khan’s ambassadors to be spies, confiscated their goods and executed them. Genghis Khan demanded reparations, which the Shah refused to pay. Genghis retaliated with a force of 200,000 men, launching a multi-pronged invasion.

He attempted to flee to India, but the Mongols caught up with him before he got there, and he was defeated at the Battle of Indus. 1200, on the eve of the Mongol invasions. Though the Mongols had destroyed the Khwarezmian Empire in 1220, many Khwarezmians survived by working as mercenaries in northern Iraq. Sultan Jalal ad-Din’s followers remained loyal to him even after his death in 1231, and raided the Seljuk lands of Jazira and Syria for the next several years, calling themselves the Khwarezmiyya. After taking Jerusalem, the Khwarezmian forces continued south, and on October 17 fought on the side of the Ayyubids at the Battle of Harbiyah, northeast of Gaza, killing the remains of the Crusader Christian army there, some 1,200 knights. The remains of the Muslim Khwarezmians served in Egypt as Mamluk mercenaries until they were finally beaten by al-Mansur Ibrahim some years later. Khwarizmi war captives assimilated into the Mongols, forming the modern Mongolian clan Sartuul.

Blue Row Signifies vassalage of Samanid Empire. Green Rows Signify vassalage of Ghaznavid Empire. Green Rows Signify Ghaznavid Empire rule. Conquest of Khwarezm by Tughril Beg and Chaghri Beg of the Seljuq Empire. Green Row Signifies rule of Ghaznavid Empire. Purple Row Signifies rule of Seljuq Empire.

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