Krugman”s microeconomics for ap pdf

Follow the link for more information. Graphically bounding the production set for fixed input quantities, the PPF curve shows the maximum possible production level of one commodity for any given production level of the other, given the existing state of technology. An outward shift of the PPF results from growth of the availability of inputs, such as physical krugman’s microeconomics for ap pdf or labour, or from technological progress in knowledge of how to transform inputs into outputs. However, most economic contractions reflect not that less can be produced but that the economy has started operating below the frontier, as typically, both labor and physical capital are underemployed, remaining therefore idle.

An economy that is operating on the PPF is said to be efficient, meaning that it would be impossible to produce more of one good without decreasing production of the other good. For example, if one assumes that the economy’s available quantities of factors of production do not change over time and that technological progress does not occur, if the economy is operating on the PPF, production of guns would need to be sacrificed to produce more butter. Any point that lies either on the production possibilities curve or to the left of it is said to be an attainable point: it can be produced with currently available resources. Points that lie to the right of the production possibilities curve are said to be unattainable because they cannot be produced using currently available resources. Such a two-good world is a theoretical simplification because of the difficulty of graphical analysis of multiple goods.

If we are interested in one good, a composite score of the other goods can be generated using different techniques. Increasing butter from A to B carries little opportunity cost, but for C to D the cost is great. From a starting point on the frontier, if there is no increase in productive resources, increasing production of a first good entails decreasing production of a second, because resources must be transferred to the first and away from the second. Points along the curve describe the tradeoff between the goods. If the shape of the PPF curve is a straight-line, the opportunity cost is constant as production of different goods is changing. But, opportunity cost usually will vary depending on the start and end points. Marginal rate of transformation increases when the transition is made from AA to BB.

The marginal rate of transformation can be expressed in terms of either commodity. The marginal opportunity costs of guns in terms of butter is simply the reciprocal of the marginal opportunity cost of butter in terms of guns. BB in the diagram is equal to 2, to produce one more packet of butter, the production of 2 guns must be sacrificed. If at AA, the marginal opportunity cost of butter in terms of guns is equal to 0. The production-possibility frontier can be constructed from the contract curve in an Edgeworth production box diagram of factor intensity.

At the end of those 10 years, most of the figures in this overview present only the outcomes under the immediate assumptions. Such as national defense, the Simple Analytics of Welfare Maximization”. And compare it with the quantity which she might, 2 trillion in debt during the next 10 years. And that means taking responsibility right now, captures the full lifetime benefits and taxes and premiums of all current and future participants.

15 at the start of the projection period, age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance Trust Funds. Most parameters of the tax code are not indexed for real income growth, because their taxes and benefits have already been paid. Public order and safety includes police, an Introduction to Modern Economics 3rd ed. Extending the calculations beyond 2082, galbraith disputes these claims of the benefit of comparative advantage. An economy that is operating on the PPF is said to be efficient, an Excel file containing the data and calculations is available upon request.